1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World by Stephen R. Bown PDF

By Stephen R. Bown

ISBN-10: 1553659090

ISBN-13: 9781553659099

In 1494, award-winning writer Stephen R. Bown tells the untold tale of the explosive feud among monarchs, clergy, and explorers that cut up the globe among Spain and Portugal and made the world’s oceans a battleground.

When Columbus triumphantly back from the United States to Spain in 1493, his discoveries infected an already-smouldering clash among Spain’s well known monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, and Portugal’s João II. Which country was once to manage the world’s oceans? To quell the argument, Pope Alexander VI—the infamous Rodrigo Borgia—issued a proclamation laying the root for the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494, an edict that created an imaginary line within the Atlantic Ocean dividing the complete recognized (and unknown) international among Spain and Portugal.

Just because the world’s oceans have been approximately to be opened by means of Columbus’s epochal voyage, the treaty sought to restrict the seas to those preferred Catholic countries. The edict was once to have a profound effect on global background: it propelled Spain and Portugal to superpower prestige, urged many different ecu international locations on a collision path, and have become the primary criticism in centuries of foreign espionage, piracy, and warfare.

The treaty additionally all started the struggle for “the freedom of the seas”—the epic fight to figure out even if the world’s oceans, and therefore worldwide trade, will be managed by means of the decree of an autocrat or be open to the ships of any nation—a fantastically sleek idea, championed within the early 17th century via the Dutch felony theorist Hugo Grotius, whose arguments turned the root of overseas law.
At the center of 1 of the best overseas diplomatic and political agreements of the final 5 centuries have been the strained relationships and passions of a handful of robust members. They have been associated by means of a shared heritage, mutual animosity, and private obligations—quarrels, rivalries, and hatreds that dated again many years. but the fight eventually stemmed from a tender woman’s decision to defy culture and the king, and to decide on her personal husband.

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The seven largest papers had substantial circulations in 2004: El-Khabar (circulation 530,000), Quotidien d’Oran (195,000), Liberte (120,000), El-Watan (70,000), L’Expression (29,000), Djazair News (20,000) and Chorouk El-Youmi (9,000). There are two stateowned French-speaking papers, El-Moudjahid and Horizons, and two state-owned Arab speaking papers, El-Chaab and El-Massa. Algeria has approximately 25 radio stations and 46 television stations. Satellite dish antennas are widespread and millions of citizens have access to European and Middle Eastern broadcast stations.

Angola 26 13 GOVERNMENT The constitution of 1975, amended in 1976 and 1980, was promulgated and revised by the MPLA. The president of the republic is both chief of state and head of government. He appoints and leads the council of ministers. In 1980, a 223-member National People’s Assembly, indirectly elected, replaced the Council of the Revolution as the supreme organ of the state. In January 1987, the Assembly was enlarged to 289 members, and later reduced to 220. In 2006, there were 220 members elected by proportional vote to four-year terms.

In 1964, the Ministry for Housing and Construction was created to aid in reconstruction and upgrading of damaged and substandard dwellings. The government’s 1965 financial reform provided for regularization of ownership and collection of rents from some 500,000 nationalized or sequestered apartments and houses in the major cities. Migration to the coastal cities during the 1960s and 1970s aggravated the housing problem, and in the 1974–77 development plan the government took steps to curb the flow.

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1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half by Stephen R. Bown

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