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By Speakman J

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Book I Chapter 1 Welcome to Electronics 14 But Really, What Is Electricity? ✦ Electric charge refers to a fundamental property of matter that even physicists as smart as Stephen Hawking don’t totally understand. Suffice it to say that two of the tiny particles that make up atoms — protons and electrons — are the bearers of electric charge. There are two types of charge: positive and negative. Protons have positive charge, electrons have negative charge. Electric charge is one of the basic forces of nature that hold the universe together.

One of the reasons I started this chapter with the history lesson about Thomas Edison was to point out that when the whole field of electronics was invented in 1883, electrical devices had already been around for at least 100 years. For example: ✦ Benjamin Franklin was flying kites in thunderstorms more than 100 years before. ✦ The first electric batteries were invented by a fellow named Alessandro Volta in 1800. Volta’s contribution is so important that the common volt is named for him. ) ✦ The electric telegraph was invented in the 1830s and popularized in America by Samuel Morse, who invented the famous Morse code used to encode the alphabet and numerals into a series of short and long clicks that could be transmitted via telegraph.

Many of the early scientists who explored the nature of electricity believed that electricity was a type of fluid, and that it flowed in wires in much the same way that water flows in a river. ✦ The strength of an electric current is measured with a unit called the ampere, sometimes used in the short form amp or abbreviated A. The ampere is nothing more than a measurement of how many charge carriers (in most cases, electrons) flow past a certain point in one second. One ampere is equal to 6,240,000,000,000,000,000 electrons per second.

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An introduction to the electronic theory of valency by Speakman J

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