By Richard Drake
Probably the most debatable questions in Italy this present day issues the origins of the political terror that ravaged the rustic from 1969 to 1984, while the purple Brigades, a Marxist innovative association, intimidated, maimed, and murdered on a large scale. during this well timed research of the ways that an ideology of terror turns into rooted in society, Richard Drake explains the historic personality of the innovative culture to which such a lot of usual Italians professed allegiance, analyzing its origins and inner tensions, the lads who formed it, and its effect and legacy in Italy. He illuminates the defining figures who grounded the progressive culture, together with Carlo Cafiero, Antonio Labriola, Benito Mussolini, and Antonio Gramsci, and explores the connections among the social failures of Italy, quite within the south, and the country's highbrow politics; the emblem of "anarchist communism" that surfaced; and the position of violence within the ideology. although bobbing up from a valid feel of ethical outrage at determined stipulations, the ideology did not locate the political associations and moral values that might finish inequalities created via capitalism. In a chilling coda, Drake recounts the hot murders of the economists Massimo D'Antona and Marco Biagi via the hot crimson Brigades, whose web justification for the killings is steeped within the Marxist progressive culture. (20040301)
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Extra info for Apostles and Agitators: Italy's Marxist Revolutionary Tradition
All over Italy, worsening economic conditions and unemployment sparked angry demonstrations. With other anarchist leaders, notably Costa and a very youthful Errico Malatesta (1853–1932), Cafiero and Bakunin tried to coordinate a national plan of action for August of 1874. In a propaganda statement written by Cafiero, the anarchists announced that the redemption of Italy’s peasants was at hand. The conspirators envisaged simultaneous outbreaks of revolutionary violence in Tuscany, the Marches, Lazio, Puglia, the Campania, and Sicily, with the epicenter in Bologna where Bakunin himself would 36 • APOSTLES AND AGITATORS lead operations.
Even in the Matese mountains, the anarchists ritualistically changed leaders every day lest they be corrupted by power. Chaos and anarchy, side by side in the thesaurus, became one in actuality as well. With the authorities tracking their every move, Cafiero and the others descended on the village of Letino, proclaiming freedom, justice, and socialism to a crowd of stupefied peasants. Cafiero addressed these people and tried to explain the character of the revolution unfolding before their eyes.
Moreover, the problem of anarchism’s intellectual inconsistency became more evident with the removal from the scene of Bakunin’s charm and spellbinding eloquence. He had been a devastating counterpuncher against Marx, showing great perceptiveness in noting the potential for tyranny in the dictatorship-of-the-proletariat theory. 24 It became increasingly obvious to the many anarchists who flocked to the cause of legalitarian socialism after Bakunin’s death that the conspiracies he promoted of self-appointed judges and jurors, with no concern for due process or checks and balances, also contained the seeds of tyranny.
Apostles and Agitators: Italy's Marxist Revolutionary Tradition by Richard Drake